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Published onDec 16, 2020

These are the proceedings of the 21st New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) 2021 conference, organized by NYU Shanghai, and held in Shanghai as well as online around the world. We are honored as paper chairs to present a fine collection of papers documenting current thought and recent research in the intersections of music, computing, design, interactive systems and technology.

The theme for this year’s conference is “Learning to play, playing to learn.” Even before computing, instrument design has contended with tension between ease-of-use and expressivity. A violin with frets might be easier for beginners, but would not be same in the hands of a master violinist. Learning and usability have always been central issues for NIME researchers. The word “play” of course has many meanings, and it is interesting that even professional music “workers” are paid to “play” music. The concept of play in all its forms is important for motivation and engagement in learning. Finally, we can hardly think about learning these days without considering machine learning, which is now pervasive in computing fields, including music. Machine learning seems destined to play an important role in addressing expressiveness, usability, and the general design and creation of future music interfaces and systems. Although we did not select papers with this theme as a requirement, you will see many of these ideas surface throughout the proceedings.

Our review process followed the double-blind process used in previous NIME conferences. This year, there were 156 submissions. Each paper received 3 reviews. After that, meta-reviewers were invited to give their own review and to consolidate the other reviews to form a recommendation. As chairs, we followed these recommendations for the most part, but we also looked for discrepancies in opinions, read many papers and reviews and carefully considered submissions when the decision was not obvious. In the end, we have 72 papers (49 full papers and 23 short) for a 46% acceptance rate. There are also 16 demonstrations and associated papers. Counting these, we accepted 56% of the submissions in some form.

This year, we initiated a special program to help authors with writing and editing. We take pride in the fact that our community includes artists, builders, creators and entrepreneurs as well as students who have much to contribute but are not necessarily experienced in academic writing. We also enjoy participants from around the world, even though our publication language is English. We provisionally accepted 8 papers that would have been rejected due to writing problems, and we paired their authors with volunteer editors. Through this process, authors were able to improve their papers, and ultimately we accepted all 8 revised papers.

We would like to thank the many reviewers for their efforts. The conference quality depends upon these volunteer efforts, and we believe the quality of this publication is greatly improved through the constructive feedback of reviewers. We also thank the meta-reviewers, who played a special role, not only reviewing but helping to resolve conflicting reviews and assisting us to make final decisions. Finally, we want to thank the general co-chairs Gus Xia and Margaret Minsky for much support, and the proceedings production team Daniel Chin and Jingwei Zhao, who took on the enormous job of compiling hundreds of documents to create the conference proceedings, online posters and videos, and presentation schedule.


Federico Avanzini

Florent Berthaut

Frederic Bevilacqua

Ivica Bukvic

Baptiste Caramiaux

Luke Dahl

Palle Dahlstedt

Cumhur Erkut

Georg Essl

Henry Gardner

Emilien Ghomi

Michael Gurevich

Rob Hamilton

Lauren Hayes

Alexander Refsum Jensenius

Andrew Johnston

Sergi Jordà

Rebecca Kleinberger

Sasha Leitman

Michael Lyons

Otso Lähdeoja

John MacCallum

Joseph Malloch

Adnan Marquez-Borbon

Charles Martin

Romain Michon

Tom Mitchell

Fabio Morreale

Dan Overholt

Marcelo Queiroz

Stefania Serafin

Tamara Smyth

Koray Tahiroğlu

Luca Turchet

Akito Van Troyer

Gualtiero Volpe

Anna Xambó

Victor Zappi

Michael Zbyszynski


Timothy Adnitt

Ximena Alarcón

Christophe d'Alessandro

Vaios Amprazis

Robert Appleton

Jack Armitage

Sofian Audry

Juan Martinez Avila

Andreas Bergsland

Gilberto Bernardes

Dario Bertero

Francesco Bigoni

Alberto Boem

Nicolas Bouillot

Oliver Bown

Courtney Brown

Carolina Brum

Grigore Burloiu

Peter Bussigel

Andres Cabrera

Laddy Cadavid

Filipe Calegario

Anıl Çamcı

Olivier Capra

Matthew Caren

Kristin Carlson

Juan Pablo Carrascal

Doga Cavdir

Daniel Chin

Patrick Chwalek

Henrik von Coler

Perry Cook

Gregory Corness

James Correa

Tom Davis

Edmund Dervakos

Zhiyao Duan

Paul Dunham

Mark Durham

Arne Eigenfeldt

Cagri Erdem

Jonathan Ericson

Stefano Fasciani

Lainie Fefferman

Mark Feldmeier

Sidney Fels

Giorgos Filandrianos

Sands Fish

Federico Fontana

Angus Forbes

Corey Ford

Christian Frisson

Andreas Förster

Benedict Gaster

Silvie Gibet

Niccolò Granieri

John Granzow

Shawn Greenlee

Laurent Grisoni

Carlos Guedes

Andrea Guidi

Kerry Hagan

Fede Cámara Halac

Yoon Chung Han

Yoonchang Han

Lamtharn Hantrakul

Jiffer Harriman

Jacob Harrison

Akiko Hatakeyama

Adrian Hazzard

Jingyin He

Florian Heller

Mara Helmuth

Alex Hofmann

Ulf A. S. Holbrook

Quinn Jarvis Holland

Aurie Hsu

Timothy Hsu

Hanlin Hu

Samuel Hunt

Nick Hwang

Yuma Ikawa

Alon Ilsar

Robert Jack

Javier Jaimovich

Kazuhiro Jo

Bridget Johnson

Woohun Joo

Gretchen Jude

Stefano Kalonaris

Haruhiro Katayose

Tejaswinee Kelkar

Steven Kemper

Chris Kiefer

Nick Bryan Kinns

Shelly Knotts

Natalia Kotsani

Marinos Koutsomichalis

Kosmas Kritsis

Michael Krzyzaniak

Qichao Lan

Caroline Larboulette

Sang Won Lee

Hans Leeuw

Sang-won Leigh

Nolan Lem

James Leonard

Robert Lieck

Cort Lippe

Wanyu Liu

Alex Lucas

Vangelis Lympouridis

Eric Lyon

Alex MacLean

Esteban Maestre

Milad Khosravi Mardakheh

Emma Margetson

Andrea Martelloni

Raul Masu

Akihiro Matsuura

Davide Andrea Mauro

Brian Mayton

Jon McCormack

Andrew McPherson

Alex Mclean

Adam Pultz Melbye

Lia Mice

Alessia Milo

Chase Mitchusson

Stefano Delle Monache

Stephan Moore

Manoli Moriaty

Giulio Moro

Matthew Mosher

Jim Murphy

Max Neupert

Hiroki Nishino

Erik Nystrom

Benjamin O'Brien

David Ogborn

Sageev Oore

Miguel Ortiz

Reyes Oteo

Jason Palamara

Joseph Paradiso

Laurel Pardue

Sihwa Park

William Payne

Andrew Piepenbrink

Juan Pablo Yepez Placencia

Richard Polfreman

Laurent Pottier

Virginia de las Pozas

Robert Pritchard

Crystal Quartez

David Ramsay

Laura Reid

Harri Renney

Charlie Roberts

Gerard Roma

Robert Rowe

Diana Salazar

Victor Gonzalez Sanchez

Giovanni Santini

Mark Santolucito

Disha Sardana

Advait Sarkar

Yann Savoye

Carla Scaletti

Marius Schebella

Margaret Schedel

Flávio Schiavoni

Dominik Schlienger-Tuomi

Franziska Schroeder

Diemo Schwarz

Hugo Scurto

Seth Shafer

Tim Shaw

Eric Sheffield

Carlos Silla

Sara Sithi-Amnuai

Diana Siwiak

Jeffrey Snyder

Giorgos Stamou

Jeffrey Stolet

Jiri Suchanek

John Sullivan

Enrique Tomás

Jim Torresen

João Tragtenberg

Kyriakos Tsoukalas

George Tzanetakis

Gwendal Le Vaillant

Jens Vetter

Matias Vilaplana

Federico Visi

Erica Volta

Ruolun WENG

Graham Wakefield

Maarten van Walstijn

Ge Wang

Johnty Wang

Lusi Wang

Clemens Wegener

Anna Weisling

Travis West

Irmandy Wicaksono

Duncan Williams

Jiayue Wu

Vanessa Yaremchuk

Yongjae Yoo

Ji Won Yoon

Mo Zareei

Student Volunteer Heads

Ziyue Piao

Qinying Lei

Zehao Wang

Yian Zhang

Yinmiao Li

Jingwei Zhao

Daniel Chin

Alan (Lechen) Yao

Junyan Jiang

Ziyu Wang

Albert Han

Table of Contents

Bespoke Anywhere
Benedict Gaster, Ryan Challinor

Reverse-Engineering The Transition Regions of Real-World DJ Mixes using Sub-band Analysis with Convex Optimization
Taejun Kim, Yi-Hsuan Yang, Juhan Nam

Tune Field: A Novel Antenna Based Controller for Musical Expression
Guadalupe Babio Fernandez, Kent Larson

Nerve Sensors in Inclusive Musical Performance
Lloyd May

Hybridization No. 1: Standing at the Boundary between Physical and Virtual Space
Milton Riaño, Milton Riaño

Evaluation of Timbre-Based Control of a Parametric Synthesizer
Jeffrey Gregorio, Youngmoo Kim

Debris: A playful interface for direct manipulation of audio waveforms
Frederic A Robinson

Investigation of a Novel Shape Sensor for Musical Expression
Alex Champagne, Robert Pritchard, Paul Dietz, Sidney Fels

AI-terity 2.0: An Autonomous NIME Featuring GANSpaceSynth Deep Learning Model
Koray Tahiroğlu, Miranda Kastemaa, Oskar Koli

RhumbLine: Plectrohyla Exquisita — Spatial Listening of Zoomorphic Musical Robots
Brian D. Smith, Margaret Schedel

Using a Pursuit Tracking Task to Compare Continuous Control of Various NIME Sensors
Michael V Blandino, Edgar Berdahl

Synthetic Erudition Assist Lattice
Sofya Yuditskaya, Sophia Sun, Margaret Schedel

On Parallel Performance Practices: some observations on personalizing DMIs as percussionists
Timothy Roth, Aiyun Huang, Tyler Cunningham

Gambiarra and Techno-Vernacular Creativity in NIME Research
João Tragtenberg, GG Albuquerque, Filipe Calegario

Emergent Polyrhythmic Patterns with a Neuromorph Electronic Network
Christian Faubel

Human noise at the fingertip: Positional (non)control under varying haptic × musical conditions
Staas de Jong

Instrument Design for The Furies: A LaptOpera
Anne K Hege, Ge Wang, Camille Noufi, Elena Georgieva

GIVME (Guided Interactions in Virtual Musical Environments):
Damian B Mills, Franziska Schroeder, "John DArcy"

Design of Hathaani - A Robotic Violinist for Carnatic Music
Raghavasimhan Sankaranarayanan, Gil Weinberg

A Compositional Exploration of Computational Aesthetic Evaluation and AI Bias
Artemi-Maria Gioti

Canons for Conlon: Composing and Performing Multiple Tempi on the Web
Roger Dannenberg

A streamlined workflow from Max/gen~ to modular hardware
Graham Wakefield

Latent Mappings: Generating open-ended expressive mappings using Variational Autoencoders
Tim Murray-Browne, Panagiotis Tigas

Improvised Sound-Making within Musical Apprenticeship and Enactivism: An Intersection between the 4E`s Model and DMIs
Isabela Corintha, Giordano Cabral

Interaction Taxonomy for Sequencer-Based Music Performances
Stefan Püst, Lena Gieseke, Angela Brennecke

The Rullen Band- Inclusive Musical Instruments Made for Playing Together
Maria Svahn, Josefine Hölling, Fanny Curtsson, Nina Nokelainen

The Timbre Explorer: A Synthesizer Interface for Educational Purposes and Perceptual Studies
Joshua Ryan G Lam, Charalampos Saitis

Wireless Sound Modules
Vivian Lydia Dajana Reuter, Lorenz Schwarz

Amstramgrame: Making Scientific Concepts More Tangible Through Music Technology at School
Romain Michon, Catinca Dumitrascu, Sandrine Chudet, Yann Orlarey, Stéphane Letz, Dominique Fober

Score-Transformer: A Deep Learning Aid for Music Composition
Jeffrey A. T. Lupker

CHILLER: a Computer Human Interface for the Live Labeling of Emotional Responses
Claire Pelofi, Michal N Goldstein, Dana Bevilacqua, Michael McPhee, Ellie Abrams, Pablo Ripollés

Le Bâton: A Digital Musical Instrument Based on the Chaotic Triple Pendulum
Matthew Skarha, Vincent Cusson, Christian Frisson, Marcelo Wanderley

Cross-Pollinating Ecological Perspectives in ADMI Design and Evaluation
Alex Lucas, Jacob Harrison, Franziska Schroeder, Miguel Ortiz

The Effect of Control-Display Ratio on User Experience in Immersive Virtual Musical Instruments
Vincent Reynaert, Florent Berthaut, Yosra Rekik, Laurent Grisoni

Self-resonating Vibrotactile Feedback Instruments ||: Making, Playing, Conceptualising :||
Alice Eldridge, Chris Kiefer, Dan Overholt, Halldor A Ulfarsson

A Visualization Tool to Explore Interactive Sound Installations
Valérian Fraisse, Catherine Guastavino, Marcelo Wanderley

HASGS: Five Years of Reduced Augmented Evolution
Henrique Portovedo, Paulo Ferreira Lopes, Ricardo Mendes, Tiago Gala

Comparative Latency Analysis of Optical and Inertial Motion Capture Systems for Gestural Analysis and Musical Performance
Geise Santos, Johnty Wang, Carolina Medeiros, Marcelo Wanderley, Tiago Tavares, Anderson Rocha

Sensitiv – Designing a Sonic Co-play Tool for Interactive Dance
Lisa Andersson López, Thelma Svenns, Andre Holzapfel

Quadrant: A Multichannel, Time-of-Flight Based Hand Tracking Interface for Computer Music
Chris Chronopoulos

Designing and performing with Pandora's Box: transforming feedback physically and with algorithms
Ward J Slager

Mono-Replay : a software tool for digitized sounds animation
Thomas Lucas, "Christophe dAlessandro", Serge de Laubier

Ripples: An Auditory Augmented Reality iOS Application for the Atlanta Botanical Garden
Yi Wu, Jason Freeman

Toneblocks: Block-based musical programming
Michael Quigley, William C Payne

An Infinitely Sustaining Piano Achieved Through a Soundboard-Mounted Shaker
William A Thompson, Edgar Berdahl

Speculātor: visual soundscape augmentation of natural environments
Nathan D Villicana-Shaw, Dale Carnegie, Jim Murphy, Mo Zareei

Living Sounds: Live Nature Sound as Online Performance Space
Gershon Dublon, Xin Liu

COSMIC: A Conversational Interface for Human-AI Music Co-Creation
Yixiao Zhang, Gus Xia, Mark Levy, Simon Dixon

Live Coding With the Cloud and a Virtual Agent
Anna Xambó, Gerard Roma, Sam Roig, Eduard Solaz

Virtuoso mapping for the Electrumpet, a hyperinstrument strategy
Hans Leeuw

Spire Muse: A Virtual Musical Partner for Creative Brainstorming
Notto J. W. Thelle, Philippe Pasquier

Entangled: A Multi-Modal, Multi-User Interactive Instrument in Virtual 3D Space Using the Smartphone for Gesture Control
Myungin Lee

Algorithmic Power Ballads
Shelly Knotts

Interpolating Audio and Haptic Control Spaces
Juliette Regimbal, Marcelo Wanderley

Sounds of Futures Passed: Media Archaeology and Design Fiction as a NIME Methodologies
Derek Holzer, Henrik Frisk, Andre Holzapfel

Transformer Neural Networks for Automated Rhythm Generation
Thomas G Nuttall, Behzad Haki, Sergi Jordà

Guitar augmentation for Percussive Fingerstyle: Combining self-reflexive practice and user-centred design
Andrea Martelloni, Andrew McPherson, Mathieu Barthet

Making Mappings: Design Criteria for Live Performance
Travis J West, Stéphane Huot, Marcelo Wanderley, Baptiste Caramiaux

Music Computing and Computational Thinking: A Case Study
Kyriakos Tsoukalas, Ivica Ico Bukvic

SoftMRP: a Software Emulation of the Magnetic Resonator Piano
Jonathan Pitkin

Re-Imagining (Accessible) Digital Musical Instruments: A Survey on Electronic Music-Making Tools
Emma Frid, Alon A Ilsar

The Body Electric: A NIME designed through and with the somatic experience of singing
Kelsey I Cotton, Pedro Sanches, Vasiliki Tsaknaki, Pavel Karpashevich

DMI Apprenticeship: Sharing and Replicating Musical Artefacts
Luis Zayas Garin, Jacob Harrison, Robert Jack, Andrew McPherson

Global Hyperorgan: a platform for telematic musicking and research
Randall Harlow, Mattias Petersson, Robert Ek, Federico Visi, Stefan Östersjö

NIME and the Environment: Toward a More Sustainable NIME Practice
Raul Masu, Adam Pultz Melbye, John Sullivan, Alexander Refsum Jensenius

Embodied Gestures: Sculpting Energy-Motion Models into Musical Interfaces
Enrique Tomás, Thomas Gorbach, Hilda Tellioğlu, Martin Kaltenbrunner

Grisey’s 'Talea': Musical Representation As An Interactive 3D Map
Anne Sophie Andersen, Derek Kwan

Changing GEAR: The Girls Electronic Arts Retreat's Teaching Interfaces for Musical Expression
Abby Aresty, Rachel Gibson

Musical Exploration of Volumetric Textures in Mixed and Virtual Reality
Florent Berthaut

A Wearable Haptic Interface for Breath Guidance in Vocal Training
Yinmiao Li, Ziyue Piao, Gus Xia

Creativity in Children's Digital Music Composition
Corey J Ford, Nick Bryan-Kinns, Chris Nash

TouchGrid – Combining Touch Interaction with Musical Grid Interfaces
Beat Rossmy, Alexander Wiethoff

Musical Grid Interfaces: Past, Present, and Future Directions
Beat Rossmy, Alexander Wiethoff

Hyper-hybrid Flute: Simulating and Augmenting How Breath Affects Octave and Microtone
Daniel Chin, Yian Zhang, Gus Xia

Reactive Video: Movement Sonification as Auditory Feedback for Supporting Physical Activity
Doga Cavdir, Christopher Clarke, Patrick Chiu, Laurent Denoue, Don Kimber

The T-Stick Music Creation Project: An approach to building a creative community around a DMI
Takuto Fukuda, Eduardo Meneses, Travis J West, Marcelo Wanderley

Embracing Less Common Evaluation Strategies for Studying User Experience in NIME
P J Charles Reimer, Marcelo Wanderley

MapLooper: Live-looping of distributed gesture-to-sound mappings
Christian Frisson, Mathias Bredholt, Joseph Malloch, Marcelo Wanderley

NIME Scores: a Systematic Review of How Scores Have Shaped Performance Ecologies in NIME
Raul Masu, Nuno N. Correia, Teresa Romão

A Study on Learning Advanced Skills on Co-Playable Robotic Instruments
Sang-won Leigh, Jeonghyun (Jonna) Lee

Discourse is critical: Towards a collaborative NIME history
S. M. Astrid Bin

Click::RAND#2. An Indeterminate Sound Sculpture
Paul Dunham, Mo Zareei, Dale Carnegie, Dugal McKinnon

What to Play and How to Play it: Guiding Generative Music Models with Multiple Demonstrations
Jon Gillick, David Bamman

A Yellow Box with a Key Switch and a 1/4" TRS Balanced Audio Output
Marinos Koutsomichalis

Documentation and Replicability in the NIME Community
Filipe Calegario, Christian Frisson, João Tragtenberg, Eduardo Meneses, Joseph Malloch, Vincent Cusson, Marcelo Wanderley

LoopBlocks: Design and Preliminary Evaluation of an Accessible Tangible Musical Step Sequencer
Andreas Förster, Mathias Komesker

Aeolis: A Virtual Instrument Producing Pitched Tones With Soundscape Timbres
Lior Arbel

20 NIMEs: Twenty Years of New Interfaces for Musical Expression
Stefano Fasciani, Jackson Goode


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